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Contextual Module

Children and Youth in Canada - The Context of their Lives (module table of contents)

Section 4: Economic Inequities (section table of contents)


Income is perhaps the most important social determinant of health for Canadian families. Level of income shapes overall living conditions, affects psychological functioning and well-being, and influences health-related behaviours. Level of income also determines the quality of other social determinants of health, including food security, housing, and access to social and cultural resources.1

1Mikkonen J, Raphael D. (2010). “Social Determinants of Health: The Canadian Facts.”
Toronto, ON: York University School of Health Policy and Management. Accessed on June 29, 2012 at

In 2010, the average after-tax income of all families with two or more children was $76,600. The richest 20% earned $125,800 more than the poorest 20% (about 5.6 times greater).

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